The marau Hangarau (Māori-medium Technology curriculum): Why there isn't much research but why there should be!

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Ruth Lemon
Kerry Maree Lee
Hēmi Dale


Hangarau is under-researched. Research in this field, from historical case studies to exploration of hangarau practice across a range of educational contexts, is needed. We examine the significant gap by outlining the timelines leading up to the third cycle of curriculum design and implementation of the marau hangarau. The dataset is drawn from a larger project consisting of interviews with tuakana-curriculum designers (Lemon, 2019) and document analysis of material sourced through requests for official information (Ministry of Education, 1999-2003, 1999-2008, 2003-2012, 2007-2009).

Hangarau needs to be researched. As a decolonising curriculum, coming from a Māori foundation of thinking and being, it connects future, past and present in a holistic approach to technological practice. Research will inform the next generation of curriculum designers, and strengthen sector understandings of hangarau. This will be reflected in classroom practice, with better uptake and engagement in hangarau–building on our past achievements. How can we plan ahead if we do not know what has been done? We need to value the work done by those who have toiled to develop a new way of learning for our tamariki mokopuna.

He marautanga reo Māori tÄ“nei mÄ ngÄ kura reo MÄori. NÅ reira, he tika te whakaputa whakaaro, te rangahau māna ki te reo rangatira. Heoi anÅ, ko tÅ mÄtou hiahia kia tukuna atu tÄ“nei kÅrero ki te tokomaha, nÄ reira te whakamahi i Ä“tahi kupu Māori torutoru noa iho i tÄ“nei wÄ. Hei tÅna wÄ, ka rere pai te reo rangatira ki konei, ki Aotearoa nei, tae atu ki ngÄ tÅpito o te ao.


We incorporate te reo MÄori in writing about a MÄori language curriculum taught in classrooms through the medium of the MÄori language. There is a glossary at the end of the article for those readers who do not speak te reo Māori.

Article Details

How to Cite
Lemon, R., Lee, K. M., & Dale, H. (2020). The marau Hangarau (Māori-medium Technology curriculum): Why there isn’t much research but why there should be!. Australasian Journal of Technology Education, 6.
Author Biographies

Ruth Lemon, University of Auckland

Ruth Lemon (NgÄpuhi, NgÄti PÄkehÄ) is a Professional Teaching Fellow in Te Puna WÄnanga, the School of MÄori and Indigenous Education at the University of Auckland. She has worked in a range of educational contexts: kÅhanga reo, primary, secondary English, and tertiary initial teacher education.

Kerry Maree Lee, University of Auckland

Kerry Lee is a Senior Lecturer in Technology Education in the School of Curriculum and Pedagogy, Faculty of Education and Social Work. Kerry comes from a background in Primary Education, where she has been an associate teacher, a senior teacher, and a tutor teacher. She has experience teaching in variable space, single cell, multicultural, junior and senior school education. Prior to working at Faculty of Education and Social Work Kerry worked as a Technology Facilitator with teachers and principals in the Auckland and Northland area. Kerry is chair of the national TENZ Council and is the managing editor of the International Journal of Adult Vocational Education and Technology.

Hēmi Dale, University of Auckland

HÄ“mi (Te Rarawa, Te AupÅuri) has taught in the MÄori medium teacher training pathway Te Huarahi MÄori since its inception in 1997. He was the principal writer of the national MÄori medium Tikanga Ä Iwi curriculum from 1998-9 and has been extensively involved in the cycle of national teacher professional development for Tikanga Ä Iwi from 2001-2003. He co-facilitated the development of the national Tikanga Ä Iwi exemplars from 2003 - 2005. He was a member of the NEMP National Social Studies Advisory Panel from 2004 - 2006 and a member of the national Social Sciences Reference Group from 2004 - 2006. From 2005-2006 he was the principal facilitator overseeing the refinement of the national Tikanga Ä Iwi curriculum. In 2007-8 he has been a co-facilitator of the Quality Teaching Research and Development pilot for MÄori medium schools. He is currently developing a teacher handbook for the Tikanga Ä Iwi learning area. His research interests are the development of the MÄori medium curricula, the Tikanga a Iwi learning area, bilingualism and biliteracy and teaching through the medium of te reo MÄori.